Bible Archaeology

Was God’s Wife Edited Out of the Bible?

Yes, it’s coming up for Easter again… Bible-bashing time…

Now for those of you who may not know it, we’ve been there and done this many times before. So stop getting all excited. He had no wife.

A British scholar claims that God may have had a wife. 

Note: She’s not the first one to make this claim. This is an old subject.

Some scholars say early versions of the Bible featured Asherah, a powerful fertility goddess who may have been God’s wife.

Research by Francesca Stavrakopoulou, a senior lecturer in the department of Theology and Religion at the University of Exeter, unearthed clues to her identity, but good luck finding mention of her in the Bible. If Stavrakopoulou is right, heavy-handed male editors of the text all but removed her from the sacred book.

What remains of God’s purported other half are clues in ancient texts, amulets and figurines unearthed primarily in an ancient Canaanite coastal city, now in modern-day Syria. Inscriptions on pottery found in the Sinai desert also show Yahweh and Asherah were worshipped as a pair, and a passage in the Book of Kings mentions the goddess as being housed in the temple of Yahweh.

J. Edward Wright, president of The Arizona Center for Judaic Studies and The Albright Institute for Archaeological Research, backs Stavrakopoulou’s findings, saying several Hebrew inscriptions mention “Yahweh and his Asherah.” He adds Asherah was not entirely edited out of the Bible by its male editors.

“Traces of her remain, and based on those traces… we can reconstruct her role in the religions of the Southern Levant,” he told Discovery News.

Asherah, he says, was an important deity in the Ancient Near East, known for her might and nurturing qualities. She was also known by several other names, including Astarte and Istar. But in English translations Ashereh was translated as “sacred tree.”

“This seems to be in part driven by a modern desire, clearly inspired by the Biblical narratives, to hide Asherah behind a veil once again,” Wright says.

Aaron Brody, director of the Bade Museum and an associate professor of Bible and archaeology at the Pacific School of Religion, says the ancient Israelites were polytheists, with only a “small majority” worshipping God alone. He says it was the exiling of an elite community within Judea and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 586 B.C that lead to a more “universal vision of strict monotheism.”

The above was here.

Asherah was the name of a Canaanite goddess. Part of the Canaanite pantheon, she became in Semitic mythology, a mother goddess. Her name is attested to in a number of ancient Near Eastern sources including the Khirbet el-Qom and Kuntillet Ajrud inscriptions, where the phrase ‘YHVH (and) his asherah’ is detected. The Bible mentions her at least forty times. And this is what she looks like (though many trees, poles and tree trunks also serve as symbols for this goddess) :  

Numerous cult images of her have been found. Now while polytheism was a perpetual problem in and around ancient Israel, it was Prof William Dever (more than 20 years ago!) who with his book  ‘Did God Have a Wife?’ popularised the hypothesis of Asherah functioning as a sort of consort to Yahweh (a Queen of Heaven). But there is really nothing textual or iconographic that warrants us to interpret or force the relationship between ‘Yahweh … and his asherah’ (as spousal or sexual for that matter). Of course, the mere notion of such is enough to capture popular imagination… and that to be well exploited by self-admitted atheists such as Francesca Stavrakopoulou.

In any event, the whole thing is nothing more than a blurb for the upcoming BBC series, ‘Bible’s Buried Secrets’ – only, there is no secret. The Bible has plenty to say about idol worship, as it was. Just ask any honest God fearing archaeologist or Biblical scholar.

UPDATE:  See also, Theologians ought to love this BBC series on the Bible. Too bad it gives in to Dan Brown-style silliness, here.

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