Who Is a Jew?

Competing answers to an increasingly pressing question.

Who is a Jew? This question is becoming ever more pressing for Jews around the world. It looks like a religious issue, but is bound up with history, Israeli politics and the rhythms of the diaspora. Addressing it means deciding whether assimilation is a mortal threat, as many Jews think, or a phenomenon to be accommodated. The struggle over the answer will shape Israel’s society, its relations with Jews elsewhere, and the size and complexion of the global Jewish community.

For Orthodox Jews like Rabbi Tubul, the solution is simple and ancient: you are a Jew if your mother is Jewish, or if your conversion to Judaism accorded with the Halacha, Jewish religious law. Gentiles might be surprised that for Jews by birth this traditional test makes no reference to faith or behaviour. Jews may be atheist (many are: apostasy is a venerable Jewish tradition) and still Jews. Joel Roth, a Conservative rabbi at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, likens this nativist criterion to that for American citizenship: Americans retain it regardless of their views on democracy or the constitution. Some strict rabbis even think that a child is not Jewish if born to a devout mother but from a donated gentile egg…


The Economist has more.



2 thoughts on “Who Is a Jew?

  1. Surely this is a big debate among Jews today, and especially in Israel! I would myself (of course as a Gentile) but speaking historically and theologically, come closer to the Orthodox Jews, and the Halacha, the collective body of Jewish religious laws, based on the Written and Oral Law. The Halacha, is “the path”! But indeed one is a Jew from a Jewish mother, or conversion according to the Halacha, Jewish religious law.

    Of course for Saul/Paul being a Jew was besides an ethnic thing, is also much more spiritual, noting Romans 2:28-29, but he returns to the advantage of the Jew and circumcision, Romans 3: 1-2 ; 9: 3-5.

    Btw, Conservative Judaism regards the violation of the commandments, the “mitzvet”, to be a sin!

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