Over at PaleoJudaica:
WHAT’S IN A NAME? Why Are Palestinians Called Palestinians? The Palestinians don’t see themselves as descendants of the Biblical invaders, but they are named for the Philistines just the same (Elon Gilad, Haaretz).
The word “Palestinian” derives from the Philistines, a people who were not indigenous to Canaan but who had gained control of the coastal plains of what are now Israel and Gaza for a time. According to ancient Egyptian records of the period, which is the first written mention of them, the Philistines reached the region in around the 12 century BCE, which the archaeological record seems to confirm.
Although it is likely that some Philistine blood runs through the veins of modern-day Palestinians (and through the Jews’), they are a different people with a different culture.
Where the Philistines originated is a matter of debate, as they left no written records, but there are two main theories, based mainly on signature pottery shards. The original theory was that the Philistines originated in the Aegean basin and belonged to the Mycenaean culture. A newer hypothesis is that they were members of the Hurrian culture and came from what is today southern Turkey and Syria.
In any case, given the current state of knowledge, it is impossible to determine the etymology of the Philistines’ name in their own language.
What we can discuss is how this word morphed into the name of an altogether different people thousands of years later.
And so he does, taking the development of the name up to the present. Good discussion. The origin of the name is a less complicated question than that of the genetic origin of the people who now call themselves “Palestinians.” Genetic testing is probably advanced enough these days to make some progress toward answering the latter question. Meanwhile, some years ago I posted some thoughts on the subject here (point 2).